During school from home, students need positive reinforcement both from parents and teachers to improve or trigger their positive behavior. This study aimed to identify the intensity of verbal positive reinforcement given by teachers to students during school from home. It was a mix-method study by involving 310 elementary school teachers as respondents (41.29 % males, 58.71% females). The intensity of positive reinforcement was measured using an instrument developed from the basic theory of positive reinforcement by Skinner (1953) and Schakel & Lyon (1984) and information collected from interviews with teachers. The instrument consisted of 7 kinds of verbal positive reinforcement that can be given by teachers during school from home. The findings indicated that during school from home, teachers tended to give less verbal positive reinforcement to students. Teachers' lack of understanding about the importance to give positive reinforcement during school from home was the main factor leading to the condition. Besides that, teachers did not understand that the verbal positive reinforcement can be delivered both in oral and written forms. Another finding shows that female teachers more often gave positive reinforcement than males. The kind of positive reinforcement given by these two different genders was also different.
Distance-Schooling, Grundschule, Indonesien, International, Lehrpersonen, Mixed-Methods Studie
Mantasiah, R., Yusri, Sinring, Abdullah, Aryani, Farida (2021). Assessing Verbal Positive Reinforcement of Teachers during School from Home in the COVID-19 Pandemic Era. International Journal of Instruction, 14, 1037–1050.